Embedded refers to something that is attached or associated with another thing. An embedded systems can be picturized as a computer hardware system which has a software embedded in it. This system can be independent or a component of a large system. This system is a microcontroller or a microprocessor based system which is meant to perform a particular task. This system has three components:
- Application software
- Real time operating system or RTOS.
RTOS supervises and monitors the application software and offers mechanism to allow the processor to operate on the basis of its schedule by paying heed to a plan to control the latencies. It defines the way a system works. It lays down the rules in the ongoing execution of an application program. A small scale embedded system doesn’t have RTOS.
Characteristics of Embedded Systems
- Single functioned
An embedded system is meant to perform a particular operation and then it repeats.
- Tightly constrained
All the computing systems bear limitations on the design metrics, however, those on the embedded systems can be significantly tight. Design metrics help in measuring the implementation features like cost, power, size, and performance. The size should be as small as to fit in a single chip, fast performance to process rela time data and use minimum power to extend battery life.
- Reactive and Real time
Many embedded systems react to the changes on a continuous basis in the system environment and must determine results in real time with zero delays.
- Based on Microprocessors based
It is either a microprocessor or microcontroller based.
It must bear some memory, as the associate software usually embeds itself in ROM. It doesn’t require any secondary memories in the computer system.
It must have an active connectivity to all peripherals in order to connect input and output devices.
- Hardware software systems
The software is usually based on more features and flexibility. On the other hand, hardware is used for performance and security.
Advantages of Embedded Systems
- Embedded systems are easily customizable
- Embedded systems use low power
- Embedded systems bear low costs
- Embedded systems bestow you with enhanced performance.
Structure of Embedded systems
- Sensor measures the physical quantity and transforms into an electrical signal. It stores the quantity into the memory
- AD converter converts the analog signal into digital
- Processors and ASICs are used to process the data in order to measure the output and store in the memory
- DA converter converts digital data into analog
- Actuator compares the output of DA converter to the actual one stored and stores the approved one.